Using Scaffolding to Support Students’ English Speaking: What Does The Teacher Think?

Ade Tika (Universitas Islam Negeri Sumatera Utara, Indonesia)
Utami Dewi (Universitas Islam Negeri Sumatera Utara, Indonesia)


This study aims to explore the scaffolding instruction used in developing students’ speaking and describe the teacher's perspective after using scaffolding to support and help students develop their English speaking skills. A qualitative descriptive research method was used in this study that aims to describe the situation observed in the field more precisely, transparently, and in-depth. The focus of this study was one English teacher in a primary school. In collecting the data, the researcher conducted semi-structured interviews and observations to obtain the teacher’s perception and the instructional scaffolding used in teaching speaking. Then in analyzing data, the researcher adopts Miles and Huberman's (1994) method consisting of data reduction, data display, and conclusion or drawing. The results showed that the types of scaffolding used by the researcher in teaching English were two types: modelling and bridge, and then the positive and negative effects were provided. Significantly, this study can be used as a reference in supporting students to develop their speaking skills through instructional scaffolding.


Teacher’s Perception, Scaffolding, Speaking Skills, Modelling, Bridge

Full Text:



Ary D., Lucy C., & Crish S. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education (Eighth Edition). USA: Wadsworth. DeJonckheere, M., & Vaughn, L.M. (2019). Semi-structured interviewing in primary care research: a balance of relationship and rigour. Family Medicine and Community Health, 7. DOI:10.1136/fmch-2018-000057 Ellis, R. (2012). Language teaching research and language pedagogy. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons. Hammond, J., & Gibbons, P. (2005). Putting scaffolding to work: The contribution of scaffolding in articulating ESL education. Prospectives, 20(1), 6–30. Maggioli, G. H. D. (2013). Of metaphors and literalization: Reconceptualizing scaffolding in language teaching. Encounters on Education, 14, 133-150. Mattanah, J. F., Pratt, M. W., Cowan, P. A., & Cowan, C. P. (2005). Authoritative parenting, parental scaffolding of long-division mathematics, and children’s academic competence in fourth grade. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 85–106. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2004.10.007. Miles, M.B, and Huberman, A.M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis (2nd Ed). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Praetorius, A.-K., Lenske, G., & Helmke, A. (2012). Observer ratings of instructional quality: Do they fulfil what they promise? Learning and Instruction, 22(6), 387–400. Puntambekar, S., & Hubscher, R. (2005). Tools for scaffolding students in a complex learning environment: What have we gained and what have we missed? Educational Psychologist, 40(1), 1-12. Roehler, L. R., & Cantlon, D. J. (1997). Scaffolding: A powerful tool in social constructivist classrooms. In K. Hogan & M. Pressley (Eds.), Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches and issues (pp. 6–42). Brookline Books. Saban, A., Kocbeker, B. N., & Saban, A. (2007). Prospective teachers' conceptions of teaching and learning are revealed through metaphor analysis. Learning and Instruction, 17, 123–139. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc. 2007.01.003. San Martin, María Gimena. (2018). Scaffolding the Learning-to-Teach Process: A Study in an EFL Teacher Education Programme in Argentina. Profile: Issues in Teachers' Professional Development, 20 (1), 121-134. Simons K.D, &. Klein, J.D. (2007) The Impact of Scaffolding and Student Achievement Levels in a Problem-based Learning Environment. Instructional Science, 35(1), 41–72. Sylvia Rojas-Drummond, Omar Torreblancaa, Haydée Pedrazab, Maricela Vélezb, & Kissy Guzmán. (2013). Dialogic scaffolding’: Enhancing learning and understanding in collaborative contexts. Learning, Culture, and Social Interaction, 2(1). Tharp, R. G., & Gallimore, R. (1988). Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning, and schooling in social context (p. 35). New York: Cambridge University Press. Thomas G. White, & James S. Kim. (2011). Teacher and Parent Scaffolding of Voluntary Summer Reading. The Reading Teacher, 62 (2). Van de Pol, J., Volman, M., & Beishuizen, J. (2011). Patterns of contingent teaching in teacher-student interaction. Learning and Instruction, 21, 46–57. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.10.004. Van de Poll (2012). Scaffolding in teacher-student interaction: exploring, measuring, promoting and evaluating scaffolding. Van de Pol, J, Volman, M., Oort, F.J., & Beishuizen, J. (2015). The effects of scaffolding in the classroom: support contingency and student independent working time in relation to student achievement, task effort and appreciation of support. Instructional Science, 43, 615-641. DOI:10.1007/S11251-015-9351-Z Van Lier, L. (1996). Interaction in the language curriculum: Awareness, autonomy and authenticity. London: Longman. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wood, D., & Wood, H. (1996). Commentary: Contingency in tutoring and learning. Learning and Instruction, 6, 391–397. doi:10.1016/0959-4752(96)00023-0. Wood, D. (1988). How children think and learn. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Wood, D., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem-solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 17, 89–100. doi:10.1111/j.1469- 7610.1976. tb00381.x. Xu, Y., Chen, C.-C., Spence, C., Washington-Nortey, M., Zhang, F., & Brown, A. (2021). Supporting young Spanish speaking English learners through teacher scaffolding and reciprocal peer tutoring. Early Child Development and Care.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

English Education: English Journal for Teaching and Learning

Tadris Bahasa Inggris Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Ilmu Keguruan

UIN Syekh Ali Hasan Ahmad Addary Padangsidimpuan 

ISSN Print : 2338-8781 ISSN Online :  2579-4043

Jl. T. Rizal Nurdin Km. 4,5 Sihitang Padangsidimpuan Sumatra Utara 22733 Indonesia

Phone: 0634-22080 Fax: 0634-24022


Flag Counter View My Stats